Evaluation of Parents Under Pressure
Two evaluations of Parents Under Pressure (PUP) were carried out to find out more about the needs of the families involved and the impact PUP had on their lives. As part of the evaluation, the outcomes for parents and children who took part in PUP were compared with those who received the usual treatment for their drug and alcohol problems.
What we learnt
Findings from our evaluations include:
- PUP significantly reduced the risk of child abuse for almost one-third of the parents who took part in the programme. Those who received treatment as usual showed an increased risk of child abuse over time.
- By the end of PUP, parents’ overall psychological wellbeing had improved. We found sustained improvements in parents’ levels of depression and overall emotional wellbeing six months after the programme ended.
- We found that parents who took part in PUP were more able to regulate their emotions and identify problems.
- Parents reported significant positive changes in their child’s social and emotional wellbeing between the start and the end of the programme.
- Practitioners valued the PUP programme, which they felt was distinctive and offered a level of detail and flexibility not found in other parenting programmes.
> Read our evaluation reports
You can find a full list of evaluation reports for this service in our references and resources section.
How we evaluated this service
We asked the University of Warwick to carry out a randomised controlled trial. This measured whether parents who took part in Parents Under Pressure experienced more positive changes than a group of parents who didn’t take part, but who still received treatment for their drug and alcohol problems. This evaluation included only the parents of children aged two and a half and under.
The NSPCC also conducted a service evaluation of Parents Under Pressure, based on analysis of parents’ self-report measures collected by our practitioners. This evaluation included the parents of children up to 5 years of age.
The following measures were used in the evaluation:
- Alcohol Use Disorders Identification (AUDIT-C)
- Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (BCAPI)
- Brief Infant and Toddler Socio-emotional Adjustment Scale (BITSEA)
- CARE-Index – infant and toddler versions
- Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21)
- Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS)
- Interpersonal mindfulness in parenting scale – infant version (IMP-I)
- Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)
- Parental drug/alcohol use: The Timeline Follow-back (TLFB)
- Parenting Stress Index Short-Form
- Personality Assessment Inventory – Borderline (PAI-BOR)
- Working Alliance Inventory – Short form (WAI-SR).
We also used the following measures, which were designed by the programme developers:
- Daily Parenting Hassles Scale
- Life Events Scale
- Parenting Support Scale.