Research and resources

Child protection and safeguarding information, advice and research

Search our directory for our latest research, child protection statistics, leaflets, practical guidance, briefings and evaluations that share what we've learned from our services for children and families.

Research and resources

Child protection and safeguarding information, advice and research

Search our directory for our latest research, child protection statistics, leaflets, practical guidance, briefings and evaluations that share what we've learned from our services for children and families.

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Coronavirus (COVID-19) briefing: safeguarding guidance and information for schools

(Published 2020)

Guidance for schools in UK nations on safeguarding during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

Type: Briefing

Coronavirus briefing: safeguarding guidance and information for early years providers

(Published 2020)

Guidance for registered and regulated early years providers on safeguarding and child protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Type: Briefing

E-safety for schools

(Published 2018)

Online safety support and resources for schools and colleges including training, teaching resources, information for parents, IT systems requirements and ongoing monitoring.

Key safeguarding legislation for schools

(Published 2018)

Details guidance and legislation that sets out the safeguarding responsibilities of schools and colleges in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Topics: Schools
Type: Briefing

NSPCC Learning Podcast

(Published 2019)

Prefer audio? Our podcast covers a range of child protection issues to inform, create debate and tell you about the work that we do to keep children safe.

Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI): CASPAR briefing

(Published 2020)

See our briefing on sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) in England from June 2018 to August 2019. Key findings are taken from the Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel’s review and includes key learning and recommendations.

Type: Briefing

Harmful sexual behaviour: research briefing

(Published 2018)

Research briefing

Our summary of messages from research into HSB published in 2016 and 2017.

Type: Research

Coronavirus briefing: guidance for social workers

(Published 2020)

Provides guidance for social workers across the UK to help them support families and children during the coronavirus pandemic.

Type: Briefing

Social isolation and the risk of child abuse during and after the coronavirus pandemic

(Published 2020)

Read our report summarising the risks to children’s safety due to the conditions created by the coronavirus crisis, and why these risks might intensify during the pandemic.

Type: Research

Look, Say, Sing, Play early years resources to use and share with parents

(Published 2020)

A set of resources to help parents interact with their baby, boosting child development and setting up positive behaviour as their child grows.

The impact of the coronavirus pandemic on child welfare: domestic abuse

(Published 2020)

This insight briefing uses insight from NSPCC helpline contacts and Childline counselling sessions to highlight the impact of domestic abuse on children and young people during the coronavirus pandemic.

Topics: Domestic abuse
Type: Briefing

Domestic abuse: learning from case reviews

(Published 2018)

Understand more about the potential risks and impacts of children experiencing domestic abuse as well as what you can do to improve your practice when working with children and families.

Type: Briefing

Online abuse: learning from case reviews

(Published 2018)

Lessons from case reviews published since 2008, where online abuse was a key factor.

Type: Briefing

What children are saying to Childline about coronavirus

(Published 2020)

This briefing summarises key messages from children who have been talking to Childline about coronavirus (COVID-19).

Type: Briefing

Safeguarding children at risk from criminal exploitation: CASPAR briefing

(Published 2020)

Key messages about the criminal exploitation of children and young people in England based on rapid reviews received by the Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel between July 2018 and March 2019.

Type: Briefing

Complexity and challenge: a triennial analysis of SCRs 2014-2017: CASPAR briefing

(Published 2020)

Key messages from the DfE's analysis of serious case reviews (SCRs) conducted in England.

Type: Briefing

Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel annual report 2018 to 2019: CASPAR briefing

(Published 2020)

Summarises key messages from rapid reviews about serious safeguarding incidents in England from July 2018 to December 2019.

Type: Briefing

National Child Protection Inspections 2019 thematic report: CASPAR briefing

(Published 2020)

CASPAR briefing

Summary findings from Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire and Rescue Services' report looking at how the police service protects children and young people in England and Wales.

Type: Briefing

Relationships and sex education (RSE) resources for schools

(Published 2020)

Prepare for the new health, relationships, and sex education (RSE) curriculum in England with our RSE resources.

Topics: Schools

Online safety resources for schools and organisations

(Published 2020)

Browse our range of online safety resources to help schools and organisations keep children and young people safe online.

Topics: Online safety

Child sexual abuse in the family environment: CASPAR briefing

(Published 2020)

A briefing summarising the findings from inspections of how agencies in England respond to child sexual abuse in the family.

Type: Briefing

Nominated child protection lead or designated safeguarding officer

(Published 2018)

Example role description for nominated child protection lead, also known as Designated Safeguarding Officer/Lead (DSO/DSL), named person or child protection officer.

Evaluation of Minding the Baby

(Published 2019)

An evaluation of Minding the Baby, a service to improve the relationship between mothers and their children.

Topics: Early years

Protecting children from abuse by someone in a position of trust or authority

(Published 2019)

Provides information on how to recognise, respond to and prevent abuse from people in a position of authority such as teachers, care workers and doctors.

Type: Briefing

Wales safeguarding procedures: CASPAR briefing

(Published 2019)

A briefing on the new Wales safeguarding procedures, focusing on the procedures relating to children and young people at risk of harm.

Type: Briefing

Photography and sharing images guidance

(Published 2018)

Read our guidance to help you think about and mitigate the risks involved with making and sharing images of children and young people.

Recommended adult to child ratios for working with children

(Published 2018)

Guidance on appropriate staffing and supervision ratios for children and young people. Includes best practices for organisations outside of education and early years sectors.

Steps to Safety: report on the feasibility study

(Published 2019)

Read our feasibility study of an early intervention for parents experiencing domestic abuse.

Childline annual review

(Published 2018)

Learn about what children and young people have been talking to Childline about over the last year. Also includes previous reports and thematic reports.

Type: Research

Implementation evaluation of Together for Childhood

(Published 2019)

Learning from an evaluation of Together for Childhood, a preventative approach to child abuse and neglect that involves community engagement and partnership working.

Anti-bullying resources

(Published 2019)
Topics: Bullying
Type: Briefing

Protecting disabled children from sexual abuse

(Published 2019)

A 2019 research study into how parents and carers can keep children with disabilities safe from sexual abuse.

Type: Research

Childline posters and wallet cards

(Published 2018)

Childline posters wallet cards

Topics: Schools

Keeping children safe in education (KCSIE) 2019: key changes from 2018

(Published 2018)

A summary of the key changes to Keeping children safe in education (KCSIE) – England’s safeguarding guidance for schools. 

Topics: Schools
Type: Briefing

Home alone guide

(Published 2018)
Topics: Parenting

Out alone

(Published 2018)
Topics: Parenting

Handle with care

(Published 2018)

Advice you can share with parents you work with on safe, positive ways to hold and care for their baby and reduce the dangers of rough handling.

Topics: Parenting

Positive parenting

(Published 2018)
Topics: Parenting

Learning from inquiries and reports about safeguarding practice

(Published 2019)

A compilation of findings and learning from published reports of inquiries and investigations into safeguarding practice in the voluntary and community sector.

Type: Briefing

Safeguarding and child protection standards for the voluntary and community sector

(Published 2018)

For help voluntary, community and faith organisations to keep children and young people safe. Offers a realistic and practical approach, providing templates, examples and links to further information.

Introductory guide to safeguarding and child protection for the voluntary and community sector

(Published 2018)

A step-by-step approach to help you set up safeguarding and child protection measures. For voluntary, community and faith organisations and groups working with children and young people aged 0-18.

Example safeguarding policy statement

(Published 2018)

We've designed a template to help you write a document that reflects the safeguarding needs of the children and young people your organisation works with.

How do children’s helplines measure their effectiveness?

(Published 2019)

A systematic review of effectiveness of Childline and the outcomes for children who contact the service, including evidence about children’s helplines across the world.

Type: Research

"Is this sexual abuse?"

(Published 2018)

Report analysing the concerns being raised to Childline and the NSPCC helpline about peer sexual abuse.

Type: Research

What should I do? NSPCC helplines report about online safety

(Published 2018)

Report about how Childline, the NSPCC helpline and O2 are responding to children’s and parents’ concerns about sexual content online.

Topics: Online safety
Type: Research

Improving local mental health services for children who have experienced abuse or neglect

(Published 2018)

Guidance on designing and delivering mental health services to vulnerable groups of children and young people, plus an annual assessment of Local Transformation Plans.

Topics: Mental health
Type: Research

Let children know you’re listening

(Published 2019)

Resources to share learning about how to respond if a child tells you they have experienced abuse. Includes free poster resource.

Relationships, health and sex education statutory guidance: CASPAR briefing

(Published 2019)

Summary of the DfE guidance on what schools in England must deliver for Relationships Education, Relationships and Sex Education and Health Education from 2020.

Topics: Schools
Type: Briefing

How safe are our children?

(Published 2018)

Our annual report compiles and analyses the most robust and up-to-date child protection data that exists across the four nations in the UK.

Type: Statistics

Women as Protectors evaluation

(Published 2019)

An evaluation of the NSPCC's service to support women in safeguarding their children against men who pose a risk of sexual harm. Read the full report now.

Child protection plan and register statistics

(Published 2018)

Child protection plan register statistics

Type: Statistics

Supporting military families

(Published 2019)

An evaluation of three NSPCC early intervention services aiming to improve the wellbeing of families in the military community.

No one noticed, no one heard

(Published 2018)

Read our 2013 research into the childhood experiences of abuse of young men and women and how they disclosed and sought help.

Type: Research

'Letting the Future In' for children with learning disabilities

(Published 2018)

Evaluation of Letting the Future In for children with learning disabilities (LTFI-LD) a service to help children and young people with learning difficulties move on from sexual abuse.

Parents' leaflets

(Published 2018)
Topics: Parenting

Time for action on perinatal mental health care in Northern Ireland

(Published 2018)

Study into provision of support in Northern Ireland for women experiencing mental health problems during pregnancy and the year after birth.

Topics: Mental health
Type: Research

Understanding children’s and teachers’ views of Speak out Stay safe

(Published 2018)

Evaluation of the NSPCC’s Speak out Stay safe programme, which teaches school children to recognise and speak out about abuse and neglect.

Topics: Schools

10 years since the Byron Review

(Published 2018)
Topics: Online safety
Type: Research

Evaluation of Parents Under Pressure™

(Published 2018)

Evaluation of a service delivered by the NSPCC to support families where a parent has alcohol or substance misuse problems.

From bumps to babies: perinatal mental health care in Wales

(Published 2018)

Key findings and recommendations from the Perinatal Mental Health in Wales Project exploring how services are experienced by women and their partners.

Type: Research

Implementation evaluation of the Reunification Practice Framework

(Published 2018)

What we learned from supporting local authorities to use an evidence-based resource for assessing whether or not to return a child or young person home from care.

Implementation evaluation of Graded Care Profile 2

(Published 2018)

Review of how we supported organisations to use Graded Care Profile 2 (GCP2), a evidence-based tool to measure the quality of care being given to a child and identify whether a child is at risk of neglect.

Topics: Neglect

Implementation evaluation of Baby Steps

(Published 2018)

Evaluation of how we supported organisations to deliver Baby Steps, an evidence-based early intervention service which helps vulnerable parents prepare for parenthood.

Topics: Early years

Sexual violence and sexual harassment between children in schools and colleges: CASPAR briefing

(Published 2018)

We’ve summarised the key points from DfE’s guidance on sexual violence and sexual harassment between children (anyone under the age of 18) at school and college.

Type: Briefing

Assessing the Risk, Protecting the Child: final evaluation report

(Published 2018)

Evaluation of a service to assess and support the families of men who pose a sexual risk to children and to make decisions about actions to protect children.

Bringing the global to the local: trends in child protection

(Published 2018)

A review of global trends in the prevalence and services for child maltreatment in order to inform research, policy and practice in England.

Type: Statistics

The economic cost of child maltreatment in the UK

(Published 2018)

Preliminary study estimating the lifetime costs of child abuse and neglect

Type: Research

Children and young people who engage in technology-assisted harmful sexual behaviour

(Published 2018)

Research into the backgrounds and behaviours of boys and young men who engage in harmful sexual behaviours using online and mobile channels.

Type: Research

Final evaluation of the NSPCC Family SMILES service

(Published 2018)

Evaluation of a programme to help build children’s confidence and improve parents’ protective skills in families where there are parental mental health problems.

Topics: Mental health

Final evaluation of our FED UP service

(Published 2018)

We look at how well our service to reduce the impact of parental drug and alcohol misuse on children worked.

Impact of online and offline child sexual abuse: "Everyone deserves to be happy and safe"

(Published 2018)

Research into what young people and professionals say about the effects of offline and technology-assisted child sexual abuse, and how best to respond to it.

Type: Research

Implementation evaluation of Domestic Abuse, Recovering Together (DART)

(Published 2018)

What we learned from supporting organisations to deliver Domestic Abuse, Recovering Together™, a service which helps mothers and children who have experienced domestic abuse.

Topics: Domestic abuse

Minding the Baby: qualitative findings on implementation from the first UK service

(Published 2018)

Qualitative findings from a UK pilot of an early intervention programme designed to enhance a mother's relationship with her baby.

Topics: Early years

The right to recover

(Published 2018)

An overview of what happens to children following the disclosure or discovery of sexual abuse in the West of Scotland.

Type: Research

Stop TIME Online

(Published 2018)

An anti-online grooming activity pack, helping keep children and young people safe online.

Turn the Page manualised treatment programme: final evaluation report

(Published 2018)

What works in a service for teenage boys who display harmful sexual behaviour.

Type: Research

Evaluation of Letting the Future In

(Published 2018)

Findings from the largest randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a therapeutic service to help children who have been sexually abused.

Type: Research

Getting help

(Published 2018)

​What children are telling Childline about the services they receive following sexual abuse.

Type: Research

Inter-professional communication and decision making

(Published 2018)

Research by NSPCC and SCIE to identify from case review practice issues around how professionals in different agencies communicate and make decisions.

Topics: Case reviews
Type: Research

"I wasn’t sure it was normal to watch it"

(Published 2018)

Research report into the impact of online pornography on the values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of children and young people.

Type: Research

Looking after infant mental health: our case for change

(Published 2018)

Evidence-based proposition for rethinking how we put the health and well-being of young children in care and the quality of their future life outcomes at the heart of decision-making in England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.

Topics: Mental health
Type: Research

Neglect and its relationship to other forms of harm

(Published 2018)

Findings from three evidence scopes investigating the relationship between child neglect and other forms of maltreatment. 

Topics: Neglect
Type: Research

Online child sexual abuse images

(Published 2018)

An overview of research into child sexual abuse images and approaches to tackling the issue.

Type: Research

A review of the research on children and young people who display harmful sexual behaviour online (HSB)

(Published 2018)

What the evidence base can tell us about the online harmful sexual behaviours displayed by children and young people.

Type: Research

Safeguarding disabled children in England

(Published 2018)

Findings from a National Working Group on Safeguarding Disabled Children survey into the effectiveness of local arrangements to safeguard disabled children.

Type: Research

Serious Case Review Quality Markers

(Published 2018)

A set of 18 quality markers to help local agencies and reviewers in commissioning and conducting high quality case reviews.

Topics: Case reviews

Sexting and young people: the parent's view

(Published 2018)

Research on parent’s awareness of issues surrounding sexting, and what information and support they would like to receive.

Type: Research

Someone to lean on

(Published 2018)

A guide for anyone who works or volunteers with a child or young person who has been sexually abused.

Telling about abuse

(Published 2018)

A story in pictures providing advice for deaf adults to help them find out what what to do when they have child protection concerns about a child.

Telling about bullying

(Published 2018)

A story in pictures providing advice for deaf adults to help them find out what they can do when a child is being bullied.

What children are telling us about bullying

(Published 2018)

The experiences of young people contacting Childline about bullying in 2015/16​.

Type: Research

Deaf and disabled children talking about child protection

(Published 2018)

Highlights deaf and disabled children’s views and experiences of the child protection system, barriers to protection and how signs of abuse can be better recognised.

Type: Research

Spotlight on preventing child neglect

(Published 2018)
Topics: Neglect
Type: Research

Challenges from the frontline

(Published 2018)

Read our investigation into how welfare reform and austerity policies are affecting work with vulnerable families in Scotland.

Type: Research

Head and spinal injuries in children: Core info leaflet

(Published 2018)

A leaflet summarising what is known about the clinical presentation of inflicted head and spinal injuries in children.

Topics: Physical abuse

Neglect or emotional abuse in children aged 5-14: Core info leaflet

(Published 2018)

A leaflet summarising how neglect and emotional abuse affects children aged 5 to 14. Part of the Core info leaflet series.

Topics: Neglect

Neglect or emotional abuse in teenagers: Core info leaflet

(Published 2018)

A leaflet on what is currently known about teenagers’ experiences of neglect and emotional harm. Part of the Core info leaflet series.

Topics: Neglect

Neglect and serious case reviews

(Published 2018)

A systematic analysis of neglect in serious case reviews in England, between 2003 and 2011.

Topics: Neglect | Case reviews
Type: Research

The social baby

(Published 2018)
Topics: Early years

Research with children: ethics, safety and avoiding harm

(Published 2018)

Explains what researchers need to consider when involving children in their research and includes information on ethics in child research and identifying potential risks.

ICARUS leaflets

(Published 2018)

d/Deaf and disabled children: learning from case reviews

(Published 2018)

A summary of the key issues highlighted when working with d/Deaf and disabled children and how practices can be improved. Includes further reading materials.

Type: Briefing

Health: learning from case reviews

(Published 2018)

Lessons from case reviews published since 2013, which have highlighted lessons for health professionals to improve safeguarding practice.

Topics: Case reviews
Type: Briefing

Infants: learning from case reviews

(Published 2018)

Summarises the potential risks posed to babies and children aged two and under in vulnerable families and improving practice to support new parents.

Type: Briefing

Police: learning from case reviews

(Published 2018)

A summary of the risk factors and learning identified in published case reviews to help improve police safeguarding practice.

Topics: Case reviews
Type: Briefing

Safeguarding in Education Self-Assessment Tool (ESAT)

(Published 2018)

Use our free online tool to audit your school’s current safeguarding arrangements and meet best safeguarding and child protection practices.

Topics: Schools
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How Safe 2021 conference

Our How safe 2021 conference will be taking place on 4-5 March 2021. We hope you can join us then. How safe are our children? conference

How Safe 2021 conference

Our How safe 2021 conference will be taking place on 4-5 March 2021. We hope you can join us then. How safe are our children? conference