Managing allegations of abuse

Introduction

Any allegation that an employee or volunteer has behaved in a way that has harmed, or may have harmed, a child must be taken seriously and dealt with sensitively and promptly.

Depending on the situation, managing an allegation of abuse may involve:

  • the police investigating a possible criminal offence
  • your local child protection services assessing whether a child is in need of support
  • your organisation considering whether to take disciplinary action against the individual concerned.

The child’s views, needs and wishes must be considered carefully and they should be given appropriate support.

This page shares best practice for managing allegations of abuse by someone who works or volunteers with children.

Your organisation should also have procedures for responding to allegations of abuse made against a child.

> Find out more about managing allegations made against a child  

If you think a child is in immediate danger
Don't delay – call the police on 999,
or call us on 0808 800 5000, straight away.

Procedures

Procedures for managing allegations

All organisations that provide services for or work with children should have clear procedures for dealing with allegations of abuse, complaints or concerns about a member of staff or volunteer. These should comply with national guidance. All staff and volunteers should read and understand them. 

Roles and responsibilities

Your procedures should make it clear who is responsible for dealing with allegations or suspicions of abuse about someone who works with children. Make sure that all staff and volunteers know who the responsible person is and how to contact them.

Your nominated person should also know who to contact if any concerns are raised, such as the police or local child protection services.

In England, this includes the local authority’s designated officer (LADO) who manages allegations against people who work with children.

Whistleblowing 

Staff and volunteers should also know who to contact if they feel unable to report an incident within their organisation. They can make a report to the police or local child protection services, or by contacting our Whistleblowing Advice Line:

> Find out more about the Whistleblowing Advice Line on the NSPCC website

Responding

If an allegation is made that a staff member or volunteer has:

  • behaved in a way that has harmed, or may have harmed a child
  • committed a criminal offence against, or related to, a child
  • behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates they are unsuitable to work with children.

You must report this immediately to the relevant agencies (for example the NSPCC helpline on 0808 800 5000, your local child protection services or the police).

> Find out more about recognising and responding to abuse 

Conducting an investigation

Your organisation must investigate any concerns raised against staff or volunteers, regardless of who the person is or how long they've been involved with the organisation.

If someone resigns from their post or refuses to cooperate with the investigation process, this must not prevent an allegation being followed up.

“Compromise agreements” (where a person agrees to resign and the employer agrees not to pursue disciplinary action) must not be used in cases of alleged abuse.

Liaise with your local child protection services and the police to ensure that your investigation is conducted in the right way.

In England, each local authority must have one or more designated officers whose role is to manage and oversee investigations of allegations against people who work with children (Department for Education, 2018c).

Confidentiality

You should make every effort to maintain the confidentiality of all parties while an allegation is being investigated.

Consider how best to support the children involved, their parents or carers, and individuals who have had an allegation made against them. This includes:

  • telling parents or carers and the employee or volunteer concerned about the allegation as soon as possible
  • telling them how you are going to manage the allegation
  • keeping everyone informed about the progress and outcomes of the case.

Record keeping

It’s important to keep a clear and comprehensive summary of:

  • all allegations that have been made
  • details of how allegations have been followed up and investigated
  • decisions made about the allegation and actions taken.

> Read our guidance on child protection records retention and storage

Reporting

If your organisation removes a member of staff or volunteer from working with children because they pose a risk of harm (or if you would have but the person has resigned or left), you have a legal duty to inform the relevant disclosure and barring agency. Failure to do this is a criminal offence.

  • In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, refer to the DBS.
  • In Scotland, refer to Disclosure Scotland.

> Visit our safer recruitment guidance for further information on disclosure and barring

Learning lessons

Learning lessons

If an allegation is substantiated it is vital to think about lessons that can be learnt. This should include:

  • considering any factors that may have contributed to or failed to prevent abuse occurring
  • reviewing safeguarding and child protection measures to ensure ongoing vigilance
  • making changes to organisational policies and procedures as necessary.

> Find out more about how to prevent abuse by someone in a position of trust

In some cases, a case review may be appropriate. This means an independent reviewer will speak to all the agencies involved and consider the case. They will consider whether there are lessons that should be shared more widely to improve safeguarding practice.

Legislation and guidance

Legislation and guidance on managing allegations

There are differences in the way allegations should be handled in each nation of the UK.

In England, the national guidance is Working together to safeguard children: a guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. (Department for Education, 2018a).

Local safeguarding partners will also have child protection procedures.

There is separate statutory guidance for schools in England: Keeping children safe in education: statutory guidance for schools and colleges (Department for Education, 2018b)

In Northern Ireland, the national guidance is Co-operating to safeguard children and young people in Northern Ireland (Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, 2017). Section 7.2.10 covers allegations of abuse by a person in a position of trust.

Department of Education Northern Ireland (DENI) has also published a circular advising school principals and governors on how to manage an allegation of abuse against members of staff (DENI, 2015)

In Scotland, Safer recruitment through better recruitment (Care Inspectorate, 2016) includes guidance on dealing with concerns or allegations about a worker’s fitness to practise or harm to a user of a service.

In Wales, volume 5 of Working together to safeguard people deals with handling individual cases to protect children at risk, including managing allegations of abuse.

Keep up to date with new legislation and guidance by signing up to CASPAR, our current awareness service for policy, practice and research
Sign up to CASPAR 

References

References and resources for safer recruitment

Care Inspectorate (2016) Safer recruitment through better recruitment (PDF). [Dundee]: Care Inspectorate.

Children in Wales (2008) All Wales child protection procedures [Accessed 25/05/2017].

Department for Education (DfE) (2018a) Working together to safeguard children: a guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children (PDF). [London]: Department for Education (DfE).

Department for Education (DfE) (2018b) Keeping children safe in education: statutory guidance for schools and colleges. London: Department for Education (DfE).

Department of Education Northern Ireland (DENI) (2015), Dealing with allegations of abuse against a member of staff (PDF). [Bangor]: DENI

Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety (DHSSPS) (2017) Co-operating to safeguard children and young people in Northern Ireland. Belfast: DHSSPS

Welsh Government (2015) Keeping learners safe: the role of local authorities, governing bodies and proprietors of independent schools under the Education Act 2002. [Cardiff]: Welsh Government.

Further reading

For further reading about safer recruitment, search the NSPCC Library catalogue using the keyword "recruitment".

If you need more specific information, please contact our Information Service