Working virtually to support children and families

Last updated: 23 Mar 2021 Topics: News Type: COVID
Introduction
Practitioner having a virtual session with child

Throughout the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, child protection practitioners have adapted the way they work to continue to protect, support and meet the needs of children and families at risk.

Digital technology has allowed vital services to carry on providing support to those who need it throughout the pandemic and has encouraged new and innovative ways of working. Some child protection conferences have happened online, some therapeutic services for children and families have been delivered remotely and practitioners have used a range of ways to keep in touch with children and families.

Alongside this, face-to-face support has continued where necessary in line with coronavirus protective measures. Frontline practitioners such as social workers, health visitors and midwives have made visits to households to provide support, and carry out assessments, whilst also working with families virtually.

We held an online roundtable event in Wales to find out more about the issues practitioners are facing during this challenging time. Following this, we developed some best practice information for you and your organisation to use when working virtually with children and families. On this page, you’ll find:

  • an overview of a range of evidence about the benefits and challenges of supporting children and families remotely, including the learning from our roundtable event in Wales
  • tips for engaging with families as well as advice on supervision and support, confidentiality and working at home.

Key findings from the roundtable event

Want to read more about the findings from the roundtable event in Wales? The report is available in English and has also been translated into Welsh.

Download the report (PDF)

 

Benefits

Benefits

While stay-at-home guidance has been in place across the UK nations, digital technology has helped practitioners develop new and creative ways of working remotely and interacting with children and families.

Engaging with children and families

Conversations, therapeutic sessions and meetings held via phone or video call can seem less intimidating and intense than face-to-face meetings in an office or practitioners visiting someone’s home. This might be because children and families feel safer and more comfortable with remote support in a familiar environment, which can help them feel more able to open up about their emotions, experiences and situations (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 20201; Baginsky and Manthorpe, 20202; Community Care, 20203; Ferguson, Pink and Kelly, 20214; McElearney et al, 20205; NSPCC, 20216; Romanou and Belton, 20207; Turner, 20208).

Using technology can also help practitioners engage with children, for example by sharing video clips or pictures as a starting point for discussion (Community Care, 2020)9. The range of platforms and media available means that practitioners can use multiple communication methods with children and families – combining video calls, phone calls and texting, in accordance with their organisation's guidance (Baginsky and Manthorpe, 202010; Ferguson, Pink and Kelly, 202111; NSPCC, 202112).

Virtual working has in some cases enabled more playful interactions with children. Asking for a tour of the home or devising a treasure hunt can help practitioners see the home environment. Talking about pets who stray onto the screen or asking about children’s toys on a shelf in the background can help build a positive relationship between the practitioner and the child (Community Care, 202013; Romanou and Belton, 202014; Turner, 202015).

Some managers and practitioners delivering our Baby Steps service have found that working virtually has allowed them to engage with more children and families, because they can deliver the programme online to families who don’t live in easy reach of a centre (McElearney et al, 2020)16.

Child protection meetings online

The ability to hold child protection conference meetings online has enabled a greater range of professionals to attend, as they can join remotely and don’t have to take as much time away from other duties to travel. Some local authorities have reported an increase in attendance from education and health sector professionals (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 202017; Baginsky and Manthorpe, 202018).

Some police officers and social workers have mentioned finding it helpful to access and edit case files from their laptop whilst in an online meeting, so that relevant information can be shared, recorded and updated immediately (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 2020)19.

Attending online child protection conferences can also be easier for parents and carers. For example, they don’t need to make arrangements for travelling or childcare (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 202020; Community Care, 202021). Some social workers have reported that parents are more able to represent themselves in online child protection conferences because they are in a familiar and comfortable environment and haven’t had to deal with stressful journeys or make childcare arrangements (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 2020)22.

Joining child protection conferences remotely also allows parents and carers who are separated from each other to take part without having to be in the same room (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 2020)23.

Using technology, children and young people have been able to join online child protection meetings for a short amount of time, rather than the whole meeting (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 202024; Community Care, 202025; Turner, 202026). This means they can share their views without being exposed to potentially upsetting conversations.

References

Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
Community Care (2020) Learn on the go: home and online visits. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Ferguson, H., Pink, S. and Kelly, L. (2021) 12 lessons for children’s social work from practising under Covid. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
McElearney, A. et al (2020) Learning from adapting the Baby Steps programme in response to COVID-19. London: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Romanou, E. and Belton, E. (2020) Isolated and struggling: social isolation and the risk of child maltreatment, in lockdown and beyond London: NSPCC.
Turner, A. (2020) From ‘harsh’ virtual hearings to digital treasure hunts: remote social work under Covid-19. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Community Care (2020) Learn on the go: home and online visits. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
Ferguson, H., Pink, S. and Kelly, L. (2021) 12 lessons for children’s social work from practising under Covid. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Community Care (2020) Learn on the go: home and online visits. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Romanou, E. and Belton, E. (2020) Isolated and struggling: social isolation and the risk of child maltreatment, in lockdown and beyond London: NSPCC.
Turner, A. (2020) From ‘harsh’ virtual hearings to digital treasure hunts: remote social work under Covid-19. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
McElearney, A. et al (2020) Learning from adapting the Baby Steps programme in response to COVID-19. London: NSPCC.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Community Care (2020) Learn on the go: home and online visits. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Community Care (2020) Learn on the go: home and online visits. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Turner, A. (2020) From ‘harsh’ virtual hearings to digital treasure hunts: remote social work under Covid-19. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Challenges

Challenges

Although there have been some clear benefits to working virtually with children and families, the new ways of remote working have also presented challenges.

Digital technology

Not all families have access to online devices, broadband or stable internet connections (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 20201; Baginsky and Manthorpe, 20202; Community Care, 20203; McElearney et al, 20204; Moore and Churchill, 20205; NSPCC, 20216; Romanou and Belton, 20207; Turner, 20208). Some parents and carers might have phones, laptops and other devices, but might not be able to afford to keep them charged up so they can receive calls and join meetings. Both these issues mean that they aren’t always able to access online services. There have also been examples of parents getting cut off due to poor internet connection and practitioners not knowing if they have deliberately hung up (Turner, 2020)8.

If parents and carers don’t have access to the same software as practitioners, it can make them feel isolated and/or intimidated (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 2020)10. For example, if they have to dial in to an online meeting using their phone, the video conferencing features may be different or limited. They may not be able to see other participants’ videos or shared screens, or access features such as the chat area or ‘raise a hand’ when they want to speak.

Parents and carers might not have the digital skills to engage with online sessions, meetings and conferences. They might be unfamiliar with video calling or online meeting software and feel unsure about how to contribute or find it difficult to follow discussions (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 202010; Moore and Churchill, 202012).

Practitioners working from home might also struggle to access the devices they need and have problems with their internet connection (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 2020; NSPCC, 202113). They might need additional training to gain the skills to effectively engage with children and families through remote platforms.

During the first lockdown, some practitioners felt that families’ engagement with online support decreased over time (Moore and Churchill, 2020)12. This might be due to digital fatigue or coronavirus restrictions easing, meaning that families had other commitments and could access more support elsewhere.

Family life

It can be a struggle to fit online sessions and meetings in around family life, particularly during the pandemic when everyone is at home more than usual. For example, if parents and carers usually meet with a social worker while their child is at school, this could be difficult to balance alongside home teaching and/or working at home (NSPCC, 2021)15. Families might also find it more difficult to focus on sessions and meetings if there are distractions at home (Moore and Churchill, 2020)12.

Families might only have access to a limited number of devices that need to be shared between everyone’s needs and routines. For example, children might need to use the family computer, laptop or tablet to complete school work, which can make it more difficult for their parents or carers to join an online meeting.

Some families receive support from more than one organisation or agency, all of which have wanted to check in with them regularly during the pandemic. This can feel overwhelming and be difficult to manage alongside other family commitments (NSPCC, 2021)17.

Confidentiality

With stay-at-home restrictions in place during the pandemic, it’s not always easy for parents, carers and children to find a private space where they can’t be overheard. This means it can be difficult for them to talk freely to practitioners (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 202018; Baginsky and Manthorpe, 202019; NSPCC, 202120). As a result, children might feel less able to open up about their experiences of abuse if the perpetrator lives with them and can hear what they’re saying.

It can also be difficult to stop children hearing sensitive and potentially upsetting discussions that are taking place at home. For example, children whose parents and carers are attending a child protection conference or siblings of children having therapeutic sessions might overhear something distressing and need extra support (Baginsky and Manthorpe, 202019; NSPCC, 202122).

It’s generally best practice never to carry out a one-to-one session in a bedroom. However, in order to maintain privacy and confidentiality, practitioners might decide it’s necessary to conduct online sessions or meetings with one or more participants in a bedroom. This means there may be some concerns about how best to maintain professional boundaries. It can also be distressing for children to have therapeutic sessions in a bedroom if it’s a place where they have experienced abuse or trauma (NSPCC, 2021)23.

Risk assessment

Some practitioners have shared concerns about not being able to see the full picture when working virtually with children and families. It can be harder to see and interpret body language and interactions between parents and carers and children over a video or phone call. Families might be selective in what they show practitioners online and practitioners sometimes feel less able to explore the wider home environment than they would in a face-to-face visit (Baginsky and Manthorpe, 202019; Moore and Churchill, 202025; NSPCC, 202126). This can make it harder for practitioners to assess risk and take appropriate action to protect a child.

Some practitioners have expressed concerns that if parents and carers are taking part in child protection meetings from home, children may be around in the immediate aftermath of tense or difficult conversations (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 2020)27. This could put them at increased risk.

Practitioners working at home

Practitioners might find it difficult to prevent their own families, children or housemates from overhearing confidential and sensitive conversations (Baginsky and Manthorpe, 202028; Moore and Churchill, 202031; NSPCC, 202130). As well as threatening a child’s confidentiality, practitioners might feel they need to take extra time to offer support to the people they live with.

The lack of physical separation between work and home has been a challenge for some practitioners. Without the journey to and from work, some practitioners have found it harder to ‘switch off’ from distressing and/or complex situations, take a break, rest and relax before the next work day (Moore and Churchill, 2020)31.

Some practitioners have reported finding it difficult to manage working from home as there are fewer opportunities to debrief with colleagues after sessions. There might also be less time between visits or meetings to reflect on discussions and process information (Baginsky and Manthorpe, 202032; Ferguson, Pink and Kelly, 202133; Moore and Churchill, 202034; NSPCC, 202135).

References

Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
Community Care (2020) Learn on the go: home and online visits. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
McElearney, A. et al (2020) Learning from adapting the Baby Steps programme in response to COVID-19. London: NSPCC.
Moore, E. and Churchill, G. (2020) Still here for children: sharing the experiences of NSPCC staff who supported children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. London: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Romanou, E. and Belton, E. (2020) Isolated and struggling: social isolation and the risk of child maltreatment, in lockdown and beyond London: NSPCC.
Turner, A. (2020) From ‘harsh’ virtual hearings to digital treasure hunts: remote social work under Covid-19. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Turner, A. (2020) From ‘harsh’ virtual hearings to digital treasure hunts: remote social work under Covid-19. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Moore, E. and Churchill, G. (2020) Still here for children: sharing the experiences of NSPCC staff who supported children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. London: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Moore, E. and Churchill, G. (2020) Still here for children: sharing the experiences of NSPCC staff who supported children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. London: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Moore, E. and Churchill, G. (2020) Still here for children: sharing the experiences of NSPCC staff who supported children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. London: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
Moore, E. and Churchill, G. (2020) Still here for children: sharing the experiences of NSPCC staff who supported children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. London: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
Moore, E. and Churchill, G. (2020) Still here for children: sharing the experiences of NSPCC staff who supported children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. London: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Moore, E. and Churchill, G. (2020) Still here for children: sharing the experiences of NSPCC staff who supported children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. London: NSPCC.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
Ferguson, H., Pink, S. and Kelly, L. (2021) 12 lessons for children’s social work from practising under Covid. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Moore, E. and Churchill, G. (2020) Still here for children: sharing the experiences of NSPCC staff who supported children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. London: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Best practice

Best practice

We held a roundtable with professionals from a range of sectors in Wales to discuss practice issues around working virtually to support children and families.

> Download the findings from our roundtable (PDF)

Using the findings from the roundtable and a range of other evidence, we’ve pulled together tips and highlighted best practice for organisation and practitioners to consider when supporting children and families virtually.

Engaging with children and families

Practitioners should explore the most appropriate way to work with families and not assume that they have access to devices and/or the internet. It’s good practice to draw up a working agreement with children and families which includes information on:

  • the timing of sessions
  • where sessions should take place
  • how to manage confidentiality.

This can help make sure professionals and families are clear about how support will be given. The agreement should be signed by all relevant parties, including parents, carers and children where appropriate (NSPCC, 2021)1.

Practitioners should ask parents and carers how they would prefer to attend sessions and meetings and explore how that is possible within current restrictions. For example, if parents or carers struggle to attend meetings online, could professionals join a child protection conference remotely while parents, carers and the conference chair join from a private office, following strict coronavirus measures? (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 20202; Community Care, 20203).

Use a flexible approach to meeting families’ needs and employ a combination of communication methods to allow children and families to express themselves in different ways. This might include combining video calls with phone calls, texting or messaging (Ferguson, Pink and Kelly, 20216; NSPCC, 20215).

It’s vital to maintain a professional relationship with children and families and follow organisational guidance about communication. Organisations should consider updating their codes of conduct, professional boundaries policies and use of IT policies to make sure they cover online working.

It’s important to remember that face-to-face visits are still a vital part of child protection. Consider how best to combine remote working with face-to-face visits and sessions as necessary. Any face-to-face visit should be discussed with a manager and thoroughly risk assessed. Face-to-face visits might be needed:

  • where practitioners feel they need to see the family and environment in person
  • where the work is much harder to deliver virtually
  • if children and families request a visit.

> Read a summary of the guidance on face-to-face work in our briefing for social workers

Any apps, platforms and programmes being used with children and young people must be age appropriate and have suitable privacy settings in place. Net Aware provides a guide to the latest apps and platforms children are using.

Supervision and support

Supervision is an important part of child protection work and should still be taking place during the COVID-19 pandemic.

> Find out more about the guidance on supervision during COVID-19 in our briefing for social workers

It’s important to create online methods of peer support for practitioners. This could be virtual coffee breaks, remote check-ins or text groups. This can offer a chance to debrief and share best practice (Ferguson, Pink and Kelly, 20216; NSPCC, 20217).

Confidentiality

Practitioners should consider the timing of sessions with families and how best to ensure that children, parents and carers will not be overheard by others in the household (NSPCC, 2021)8. To help maintain privacy in the practitioner’s home, one option might be for organisations to provide practitioners with headsets (Baginsky and Manthorpe, 2020)9.

Confidentiality should be discussed at the beginning of each session and practitioners should ask participants if they are likely to be disturbed or if anyone can overhear them. It’s important to highlight the importance of maintaining confidentiality with families and explore how they can ensure sessions are not overheard (Baginsky, Eyre and Roe, 202010; NSPCC, 202111).

However, during the pandemic it might not always be possible for families to achieve complete privacy, for example if parents and carers need to supervise a young child. If children are going to be in earshot, practitioners should consider how best to discuss sensitive issues and think about the language being used.

If practitioners decide it’s necessary to work in a bedroom to maintain privacy, they should understand that this is not best practice, follow organisational guidance and take steps to mitigate any risk.

Include dedicated time at the end of therapeutic sessions to help children and young people process any feelings or memories that have come up during the session before they go back to family life. Make sure children know Childline can give them confidential advice and support. Calls to 0800 1111 are free and children can also get support and advice via the Childline website.

Working at home

Having a co-ordinated, multi-agency approach to supporting children and families continues to be vital during the pandemic. Practitioners should agree with any other organisations involved with a child or family how best to maintain contact and provide support during the pandemic (NSPCC, 2021)12. This might help families balance competing demands.

Everyone’s situation has changed during the pandemic. Practitioners should work with other agencies to review and update risk assessments, making sure they reflect the family’s current situation (NSPCC, 2021)13.

The results of the updated risk assessment can be used to consider the emphasis of work in the current situation. Rather than focused therapeutic work, practitioners might want to explore safety, stabilisation, maintaining relationships and emotional wellbeing with children and young people (NSPCC, 2021).

Organisations should provide best practice guidance for practitioners holding online sessions from home, particularly if they are working one-to-one with a child. This should include making sure they have a neutral background on video calls by working in front of a blank wall, blurring the background or using a digital screen (NSPCC, 2021)14.

> Read about best practice for lone working with children and young people

> Find out about best practice for using social media and online platforms with children and young people

References

NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
Community Care (2020) Learn on the go: home and online visits. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
Ferguson, H., Pink, S. and Kelly, L. (2021) 12 lessons for children’s social work from practising under Covid. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Ferguson, H., Pink, S. and Kelly, L. (2021) 12 lessons for children’s social work from practising under Covid. [Accessed 16/03/2021].
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
Baginsky, M. and Manthorpe, J. (2020) Managing through COVID-19: the experiences of children's social care in 15 English local authorities (PDF). London: Kings College London.
Baginsky, M., Eyre, J. and Roe, A. (2020) Child protection conference practice during COVID-19: reflections and experiences (rapid consultation September-October 2020) (PDF). London: Nuffield Family Justice Observatory.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.
NSPCC (2021) Delivery of virtual support and services to children and families: key issues for practice (PDF). Cardiff: NSPCC.